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    Since the early 15th century, however, the sheets have been given the desired smooth and nonabsorbent consistency by dipping them in a glue or alum bath.

    The addition of glue also made it possible to impart to the pulp paper a quality that permitted pen drawings.

    Pigments, too, could of course be added to the pulp, and the so-called natural papers—chiefly blue and called Venetian papers after the centre of the retail trade in this commodity—became more and more popular.

    While the 17th century liked half tints of blue, gray, brown, and green, the 18th preferred warm colours such as ivory and beige, along with blue.

    Since the 18th century, paper has been manufactured in all conceivable colours and half tones. The range of quality has also greatly increased since the end of the 18th century to give more painstakingly produced drawing papers.

    Even in earlier times, the absorbent Japan paper made of mulberry bark enjoyed great popularity. Handmade paper, stronger and free of wood, with an irregular edge, has remained to this day a favourite surface for drawings.

    Vellum , delicate and without veins, resembles parchment in its smooth surface. Modern watercolour paper is a pure linen paper glued in bulk and absolutely free of fat and alum; its two surfaces are of different grain.

    For pastel drawings, a firm, slightly rough surface is indicated, whereas pen drawings are best done on a very smooth paper. Granulated and softer drawing tools, such as charcoal, chalk, and graphite are not as dependent on a particular type of paper; but, because of their slight adhesiveness, they often require a stronger bond with the foundation as well as some form of surface protection.

    This process of fixing was formerly done through repeated varnishing with gum-arabic solution and even with glue or egg-white emulsion.

    Modern siccatives drying substances inhibit discoloration but cannot prevent the living surface from appearing sealed, as it were, under a skin.

    In pastels especially, the manifold prismatic effects of finely powdered coloured crayons are thus lost, and the bright and airy surface is turned into an amorphous , heavy layer.

    Pastels, which brush off easily, are therefore best preserved under glass. Such varied tools as slate pencils, charcoal, metal styli , and chalks may be used for drawing as well as all writing utensils, including pens, pencils, and brushes.

    Indeed, even chisels and diamonds are used for drawing, not to mention saws, drills, and fire. Dry drawing tools differ in effectiveness from liquid ones because it is not irrelevant from the artistic point of view whether one uses a self-drawing medium that permits an evenly flowing line dependent only on hand pressure or a transferring tool that must be put down periodically and refilled, with resultant differences in the strength and concentration of the line.

    Modern drawing mediums that combine both possibilities, such as fountain pens, ball-point pens, and fibre-tipped pens, are recent inventions.

    No less varied than the nature and composition of these drawing mediums is their aesthetic effect. Even if certain techniques predominate in certain periods, the selection of drawing mediums depends on the intended effect and not vice versa.

    Artists have always been able to attain the desired effect with a variety of techniques. Dry mediums, for example, are predestined for clear lines, liquid ones for plane application.

    Yet extremely fine strokes can also be made by brush, and broad fields can be marked in with pencil or crayon. Some mediums, including charcoal, one of the oldest, if not the oldest of all, allow both extremes.

    In every hearth or fireplace, partially consumed pieces of wood remain that can be used as a convenient tool for drawing. Evidence of charcoal sketches for mural, panel, and even miniature paintings can still occasionally be seen under the pigment.

    Drawing charcoal produced from wood that is as homogeneous as possible gives a porous and not very adhesive stroke.

    The pointed charcoal pencil permits hair-thin lines; if used broadside on the surface, it creates evenly toned planes. Rubbing and pulverizing the charcoal line results in dimmed intermediate shades and delicate transitions.

    Because of its slight adhesiveness, charcoal is eminently suited to corrective sketching; but if the drawing is to be preserved, it must be protected by a fixative.

    As a medium for quick, probing sketches and practice in studying models, charcoal was once much used in all academies and workshops.

    The rapid notation of difficult poses, such as Tintoretto demanded of his models, could be done quickly and easily with the adaptable charcoal pencil.

    While some of these sheets were deemed worthy of preservation, hundreds have surely been lost. Charcoal has often been used for portrait drawings to preserve for the eventual painting pictorial tints that were already present in the preliminary sketch.

    When destined to be autonomous portraits, charcoal drawings are executed in detail; with their sharp accents and delicate modelling, such portraits cover the whole range of the medium.

    Popular as that material was for studies and sketches, it has been used for independent drawings destined for preservation by only a few artists; for example, the 17th-century Dutch painter Paulus Potter.

    It is somewhat more frequent among the great draftsmen of the 19th and 20th centuries, such as Edgar Degas , Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Käthe Kollwitz , and Ernst Barlach.

    Oiled charcoal, with the charcoal pencils dipped in linseed oil, provides better adhesion and a deeper black. Used in the 16th century by Tintoretto, this technique was applied above all by the Dutch draftsmen of the 17th century in order to set deep-black accents.

    In addition, charcoal crayons that have been deeply dipped in oil show a brownish streak left by the oil alongside the lines; this technique was used in the 20th century by the American artist Susan Rothenberg.

    The chalks , which resemble charcoal pencils in outward appearance, are an equally important drawing medium. If charcoal was primarily a medium for quick sketching that could be corrected and for the search for artistic form, chalk drawing , which can also fulfill all of these functions, has steadily gained in importance as an autonomous vehicle of expression.

    Since the end of the 15th century, stone chalk, as found in nature, has become increasingly more significant in art drawing.

    As a basic material, alumina chalk has various degrees of hardness, so that the stroke varies from slightly granular to homogeneously dense and smooth.

    The attempt to produce a crayon or pencil of the greatest possible uniformity has led to the production of special chalks for drawing; that is, chalks, which, after being pulverized, washed, and molded into convenient sticks, allow a softer and more regular stroke and are also free of sandy particles.

    The admixture of pigments carbons in the case of black chalks creates various tints from a rich black to a brownish gray; compared to the much-used black chalk, the brown variety is of little significance.

    White chalk, also found in nature, is rarely employed as an independent medium for drawing, although it is frequently used in combination with other mediums in order to achieve reflections of light as individual accents of plastic modelling.

    Beginning with the 15th century, chalk has been used increasingly for studies and sketches. Its suitability for drawing exact lines of any given width and also for laying on finely shaded tints makes it particularly appropriate for modelling studies.

    Accents that stress plastic phenomena are applied by varying the pressure of the hand. Characteristic details in portrait drawings in particular can be brought out in this manner.

    Pictorial values as well as light and shadow effects can be rendered with chalk without losing their firm, plastic form. For the same reason, chalk is also most valuable in sketching out paintings and indicating their values.

    All of these qualities explain why chalk is such a good medium for autonomous drawings. Indeed, there is scarcely a draftsman who has not worked in chalk, often in combination with other mediums.

    Aside from portrait drawings done all over the world, landscapes have formed the main theme of chalk drawings, especially with the Dutch, in whose art landscape drawings have played a large role.

    Ever since the invention of artificial chalk made of lampblack a fine, bulky, dull-black soot deposited in incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials , which possesses a precisely measurable consistency—an invention ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci —the pictorial qualities of chalk drawing have been fully utilized.

    Chalks range from those that are dry and charcoal-like to the fatty ones used by lithographers. Another very important drawing pencil is similarly a chalk product: Besides the stronger pictorial effect possible because of its chromatic value, sanguine also possesses a greater suppleness and solubility in water.

    Thus, a homogeneous plane can be created through moist rubbing, a compact stroke through liquid linear application, a very delicate tone through light wiping.

    Although this oxide was used for red tints in prehistoric painting, sanguine does not seem to have acquired artistic dignity until the 15th century, when it became customary to fix drawings by painting them over with a gum solution, for sanguine has no more adhesiveness than charcoal.

    In the 15th century, sanguine was a popular drawing medium because of its wealth of pictorial possibilities. Those inclined to be colorists—such as the portraitists Jean Clouet and Hans Holbein , the Flemish painters around Peter Paul Rubens , and, above all, the French artists of the 18th century—particularly favoured it.

    The possibilities of sanguine range from suggestive forms with markedly plastic values to a very pictorial, soft rendition of visual surface stimuli.

    A combination of various chalks offers still richer coloristic possibilities. Black chalk and sanguine have been widely used since the 16th century to achieve colour differentiation between flesh tones, hair, and the material of garments.

    The combination of black and white chalk serves plastic modelling, as does that of the softer sanguine with white chalk; in the former case, the accentuation rests with the black, in the latter, with the more suggestive delineation in white.

    A decidedly coloristic method lies in the combination of various chalk colours with one another and with tinted paper.

    Antoine Watteau reached a previously unheard of harmony of different chalks on natural paper. An additional colour refinement is made possible with pastel crayons.

    An ample selection of dry colour pigments in pastel crayons, prepared with a minimum of agglutinants and compounded with different shades of white for the articulation of tints, is commercially available.

    The colours can be laid on in linear technique directly with the crayons, but an area application made with a piece of soft suede or directly, with the fingers, is more frequent.

    Pastel chalks are particularly favoured for portraits; their effect approximates that of colour-and-area painting rather than line drawing.

    In the 19th and 20th centuries, Degas reverted to a stronger accentuation of the delineatory aspects of drawing.

    With intermediate varnishes he achieved an overlay drawing with different colours and thus an increased emphasis on individual strokes.

    Modern grease chalks offer a chromatic scale of similar range. Developed originally for such technical purposes as the lettering of very smooth surfaces, such as metal or glass, they can be applied in the same flat manner as pastels, although with the opposite aesthetic effect: It was the 20th-century English sculptor Henry Moore who first and convincingly exploited the feasibility of continuing, with other mediums, such as pen or watercolour, work on the firm surface that had been led out with grease chalks.

    Metalpoints have been used for writing and delineation ever since the scriptoria of antiquity.

    It required little imagination to employ them also in drawing. The most frequently used material was soft lead, which on a smooth surface comes out pale gray, not very strong in colour, and easily erasable but very suitable for preliminary sketches.

    Aside from lead, tin and copper were also used, as well as sundry lead-and-pewter alloys. One can see little more than the traces left by the pencil because, as in many other metalpoint drawings, the sketches were redrawn in another medium.

    Metalpoints were used into the 18th century for perspectivist constructions and auxiliary delineation, especially in architectural drawings.

    More suited to permanent drawing is the silverpoint , which requires special preparation of the foundation and, once applied, cannot be corrected.

    Its stroke, also pale gray, oxidizes into brown and adheres unerasably. Silverpoint drawings accordingly require a clearer concept of form and a steady hand because corrections remain visible.

    Because too much pressure can bring about cracks in the foundation, the strokes must be even; emphases, modelling, and light phenomena must be rendered either by means of dense hachures, repetitions, and blanks or else supplemented by other mediums.

    Despite these difficulties, silverpoint was much used in the 15th and 16th centuries. Silverpoint was much in demand for portrait drawings from the 15th into the 17th century; revived in the 18th-century Romantic era, it was also used by modern artists, most notably Picasso.

    Toward the end of the 16th century, a new drawing medium was introduced and soon completely displaced metalpoint in sketching and preliminary drawing: Also called Spanish lead after its chief place of origin, this drawing medium was quickly and widely adopted; but because of its soft and smeary consistency it was used for autonomous drawings only by some Dutch painters, and even they employed it mostly in conjunction with other points.

    It might be added that the graphite point was originally taken for a metal because its texture shines metallically in slanting light.

    Purified and washed, graphite could henceforth be made with varying admixtures of clay and in any desired degree of hardness.

    The hard points, with their durable, clear, and thin stroke layers, were especially suited to the purposes of Neoclassicist and Romantic draftsmen.

    The Germans working in Rome, in particular, took advantage of the chance to sketch rapidly and to reproduce, in one and the same medium, subtle differentiations as well as clear proportions of plasticity and light.

    Among the most masterful pencil artists of all was Ingres , who presketched systematically in pencil the well-thought-out structure of his paintings.

    The more pictorially inclined artists of the late 19th century preferred softer pencils in order to throw into plastic relief certain areas within the drawing.

    Coloured crayons , in circulation since the late 19th century, offer all the possibilities of black graphite points; and, in combinations, they attain a stronger colour value than chalks because they do not merge with one another.

    Every line preserves its original and characteristic colour, a form of independence that Gustav Klimt and Picasso exploited to the full. A role apart is that played by incised drawings.

    Their pronounced linearity gives them the visual appearance of other drawings; materially, however, they represent the opposite principle, that of subtracting from a surface rather than adding to it.

    Incised drawings are among the oldest documents of human activity. In primitive African cultures , the methods and forms of prehistoric bone and rock drawings have survived into the present.

    In a decorative and conceivably also symbolic form, incised decorations on pottery have existed for thousands of years; insofar as the comparison is valid, they correspond in every formal respect to applied drawings of the same period.

    A formal equivalent may also be observed in later times: More often than not these are drawings that follow certain models rather than free drawings in the sense of sketches.

    Logically, one would also have to consider all niello work under the heading of drawing, because the picture in this case is cut out of the metal and filled with a deep black-coloured paste so that it appears to the eye as a linear projection on a plane.

    In like manner, work with the graver or burin cutting tools and with the etching needle on the engraving plate may be considered to parallel in its execution that gradual effort applied directly to the carrier that was defined earlier as the art of drawing.

    The difference lies in the fact that this work is not a goal in itself but the prerequisite for a printing process that is intended to be repetitive.

    Of the many possibilities of transferring liquid dyestuffs onto a plane, two have become particularly significant for art drawing: To be sure, finger painting, as found in prehistoric cave paintings, has occasionally been practiced since the late Renaissance and increasingly so in more recent times.

    For drawing as such, however, the method is irrelevant. Although it is antedated by the brush, which in some cultures East Asia, for example has remained in continued use, the pen has been the favorite writing and drawing tool ever since classical antiquity.

    The principle of transferring dyestuffs with the pen has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. The capillary effect of the split tip, cut at a slant, applies the drawing fluid to the surface parchment, papyrus, and, since the late Middle Ages, almost exclusively paper in amounts varying with the saturation of the pen and the pressure exerted by the drawing hand.

    The oldest form is that of the reed pen ; cut from papyrus plants, sedge, or bamboo, it stores a reservoir of fluid in its hollow interior.

    Rembrandt made superb use of the strong, plastic accents of the reed pen, supplementing it as a rule with other pens or brushes.

    Beginning in the 19th century with the Dutch artist van Gogh , pure reed-pen drawings with a certain forcefulness of expression have been created by many artists.

    Expressionists such as George Grosz used the reed pen frequently. If the selection of the reed pen already implies a formal statement of sorts, that of the quill pen opens up a far wider range of possibilities.

    Ever since the rise of drawing in Western art—that is, since the late Middle Ages—the quill has been the most frequently used instrument for applying liquid mediums to the drawing surface.

    The supple tip of the quill, available in varying strengths, permits a relatively wide scale of individual strokes—from soft, thin lines, such as those used in preliminary sketches for illustrations in illuminated books, through waxing and waning lines that allow differentiation within the stroke, to energetic, broad lines.

    Although all dyestuffs of low viscosity lend themselves to pen drawing , the various inks are most often employed. The manufacture of gallnut ink had been known from the medieval scriptoria copying rooms set apart for scribes in monasteries.

    An extract of gallnuts mixed with iron vitriol and thickened with gum-arabic solution produces a writing fluid that comes from the pen black, with a strong hint of purple violet, and dries almost black.

    In the course of time it turns a darkish brown, so that the writing fluid in old manuscripts and drawings cannot always be identified by the colour alone.

    In contrast to other brown writing fluids, the more strongly coloured parts of gallnut ink remain markedly darker; and because inks of especially great vitriol content decompose the paper, the drawing, particularly in its more coloured portions, tends to shine through on the reverse side of the sheet.

    Only industrially produced chemical inks possess the necessary ion balance to forestall this undesirable effect. Another ink, one that seems to have found no favour as a writing fluid but has nonetheless had a certain popularity in drawing, is bistre , an easily dissolved, light-to-dark-brown transparent pigment obtained from the soot of the lampblack that coats wood-burning chimneys.

    Its shade depends both on the concentration and on the kind of wood from which it is derived, hardwoods especially oaks producing a darker shade than conifers, such as pine.

    During the pictorially oriented Baroque period , in the 17th and early 18th centuries, the warm tone that can be thinned at will made bistre a popular medium with which to supplement the planes of a pen drawing.

    Also derived from a carbon base is India ink , made from the soot of exceptionally hard woods, such as olive or grape vines, or from the fatty lampblack of the oil flame, with gum-arabic mixed in as a binding agent.

    This deep-black, thick fluid preserves its dark tone for a long time and can be thinned with water until it becomes a light gray. Pressed into sticks or bars, it was sold under the name of Chinese ink or India ink.

    This writing fluid, known already in Egypt and used to this day in China and India , has been manufactured in Europe since the 15th century.

    Favoured in particular by German and Dutch draftsmen because of its strong colour, it lent itself above all to drawing on tinted paper.

    Since the 19th century, India ink has been the most popular drawing ink for pen drawings, replacing all other dyestuffs in technical sketches.

    Only very recently have writing inks gained some significance in art drawing—in connection with the practical fountain pen. For a relatively short time, a dyestuff of animal origin, sepia , obtained from the pigment of the cuttlefish , was used for drawing.

    Known since Roman times, it did not come into general use until the 18th century. Compared to yellowish bistre, it has a cooler and darker tone, and is brown with a trace of violet.

    Until the 18th century, it was employed by such amateur painters as the poet Goethe because of its effectiveness in depth; as a primary pigment, however, it has been completely replaced by industrially manufactured watercolours.

    Other dyestuffs are of only minor importance compared with these inks, which are primarily used for pen drawings. Minium red lead was used in the medieval scriptoria for the decoration of initial letters and also in illustrated pen drawings.

    Chinese white is easier to apply with a pointed brush because of its thickness; other pigments, among them indigo and green copper sulfate, are rarely found in drawings.

    For them, too, the brush is a better tool than the pen. The systematically produced watercolours of various shades are almost wholly restricted to technical drawings.

    In combination with written texts, pen drawings are among the oldest artistic documents. Already in classical times, texts were illustrated with firm contours and sparse interior details.

    During the Middle Ages, marginal drawings and book illustrations were time and again pre-sketched, if not definitively executed, with the pen.

    In book painting, decidedly delineatory styles developed in which the brush was also employed in the manner of a pen drawing: The thin-lined outline sketch is also characteristic of the earliest individual drawings of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance.

    Sketches after ancient sculptures or after nature as well as compositions dealing with familiar motifs form the main themes of these drawings.

    Such sheets were primarily used as models for paintings; gathered in sketchbooks, they were often handed on from one generation to the next. The practical usefulness of these drawings is attested by the supplements added to them by younger artists and by the fact that many metalpoint drawings that had become hard to decipher were redrawn with the pen, as shown by the sketchbooks of the 15th-century Italian artist Antonio Pisanello , now broken up and preserved in several different collections.

    In the 16th century, the artistic range of the pen drawing reached an individual articulation that it hardly ever attained again.

    Every artist was free to exploit with the pen the formal possibilities that corresponded to his talents. Thus Leonardo used a precise stroke for his scientific drawings; Raphael produced relaxed sketches, in which he probed for forms and variations of form; Michelangelo drew with short strokes reminiscent of chisel work; Titian contrasted light and dark by means of hachures laid broadly over the completed figures.

    Among the Northerners, Dürer mastered all the possibilities of pen drawing, from quick notation to the painstakingly executed autonomous drawing, ranging from a purely graphic and delineatory technique to a spatial and plastic modelling one; it is no wonder that he stimulated so many other artists.

    A special form of exact drawing is found in models for engravings; some of these were directly mounted on the wood block; some anticipate the style of the copperplate engraving in the pen-drawing stage, with waxing and waning lines, delicate stroke layers, and cross-hatching for spatial and plastic effects.

    In the 17th century, the pen drawing took second place to combined techniques, especially wash , a sweep or splash of colour, applied with the brush.

    An open style of drawing that merely hints at contours, along with contrasting thin and powerful strokes, endowed the line itself with expressive qualities.

    In his numerous drawings, Rembrandt in particular achieved an exceedingly subtle plastic characterization and even light values through the differentiation of stroke layers and the combination of various pens and brushes.

    Additional techniques came to the fore in the 18th century, with the pen sketch providing the scaffold for the drawing that was carried out in a pictorial style.

    Only decorative sketches and practical studies were laid out more often as linear drawings. The closed, thin-contour drawing regained its importance with Neoclassicism at the end of the 18th century.

    Luke, who lived in monastic style and Romantics consciously referred to the early Renaissance manner of drawing, modelling with thin lines. With closed contours, carefully set hair-and-shadow strokes, and precise parallel hachures, they attained plastic values by purely graphic means.

    The pure pen drawing took its place by the side of other highly esteemed art forms. The English Art Nouveau artist Aubrey Beardsley at the end of the 19th century applied the direct black—white contrast to planes, while in the 20th century the French masters Henri Matisse and Picasso reduced the object to a mere line that makes no claim to corporeal illusion.

    A large number of illustrators, as well as the artists who draw the comic strips, prefer the clear pen stroke.

    In the hair-thin automatist seismograms so-called because of their resemblance to the records of earthquakes of the 20th-century German artist Wols Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze , which are sensitive to the slightest stirring of the hand, this theme leads to a new dimension transcending all traditional concepts of a representational art of drawing.

    Although the brush is best suited to the flat application of pigments—in other words, to painting—its use in a clearly delineatory function, with the line dominating and a crucial property of brush drawing in monochrome fashion, can be traced back to prehistoric times.

    All of the above-mentioned drawing inks have been used as dyes in brush drawings, often with one and the same pigment employed in combined pen-and-brush work.

    Still greater differentiation in tone is often obtained through concentrated or thinned mediums and with the addition of supplementary ones.

    To the latter belong chiefly distemper, a paint in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of egg or size or both, and watercolours, which can be used along with bistre and drawing ink.

    Even oils can sometimes be used for individual effects in drawing, as in the works of Jacob Jordaens. Sinopia , the preliminary sketch for a monumental wall painting , was done with the brush and has all the characteristics of a preparatory, form-probing drawing.

    The sketch was carried out directly on the appropriate spot and covered over with a thin layer of plaster, on which the pictorial representation was then painted.

    The brush drawing differs from the pen drawing by its greater variation in stroke width, and by the stroke itself, which sets in more smoothly and is altogether less severely bordered.

    Early brush drawings nonetheless show a striking connection with the technique of the pen drawing. The early examples of the 15th century completely follow the flow of contemporaneous pen drawings.

    The brush drawing for chiaroscuro sheets on tinted paper was popular because Chinese white, the main vehicle of delineation in this method, is more easily applied with the brush than the pen and because the intended pictorial effect is more easily attained, thanks to the possibility of changing abruptly to a plane representation.

    Such representations are particularly distinctive as done by Vittore Carpaccio and Palma il Giovane in Venice and in a Mannerist spotting technique used by Parmigianino.

    In the 16th century, the brush nevertheless played a greater role as a supporting than as an independently form-giving instrument.

    Pure brush drawings were rare even in the 17th century, although the brush played a major role in landscapes, in which, by tinting of varying intensity, it ideally fulfilled the need to provide for all desired degrees of spatial depth and strength of lighting.

    Dutch artists, such as Adriaen Brouwer , Adriaen van Ostade , and Jan Steen , as well as the French artist Claude Lorrain , transcended the limits of drawing in the narrower meaning of the term by doing brushwork limited to a few tones within a monochrome scale, giving the impression of a pictorial watercolour.

    The brush drawings of the Spanish painter Francisco Goya must also be counted among the great achievements of this technique. In his strong plastic effects, the English painter George Romney made the most of the contrast between the white foundation and the broad brushstrokes tinted in varying intensities.

    Turner , took advantage of the delicately graded pictorial possibilities for their landscape studies. In modern drawing, the brush has regained some importance as an effective medium for contrasting planes and as carrier of the theme; in this, the dry brush has proven itself a useful tool for the creation of a granular surface structure.

    The combination of various techniques plays a greater role in drawing than in all other art forms. Yet it is necessary, in the numerous drawings in which two or more mediums are involved, to distinguish between those in which the mediums were changed in the course of artistic genesis and those in which an artistic effect based on a combination of mediums was intended from the beginning.

    In the first case, one is confronted with a preliminary sketch, as it were, of the eventual drawing: Most pen drawings are thus superimposed on a preliminary sketch.

    The different materials actually represent two separate stages of the same artistic process. More relevant artistically is the planned combination of different techniques that are meant to complement each other.

    The most significant combination from the stylistic point of view is that of pen and brush, with the pen delineating the contours that denote the object and the brush providing spatial and plastic as well as pictorial—that is, colour—values.

    The simplest combined form is manuscript illumination , where the delineated close contours are filled in with colour. More important is brushwork that supplements linear drawing, in which entire segments may be given over to one technique or the other; for example, the considerable use of white which is hard to apply with the pen in drawings on tinted paper.

    In similar complementary fashion the brush may be used for plastic modelling as a way of highlighting, that is indicating the spots that receive the greatest illumination.

    The technique of combined pen-and-brush drawing was favoured by the draftsmen of Germany and the Netherlands, especially in the circle around Dürer and the south German Danube School.

    Shadows, too, can be inserted in a drawing with dark paint. The illusion of depth can also be achieved with white and dark colours in a pure chalk technique.

    In contrast to these methods, which still belong to a linear system of drawing, is the flat differentiation of individual segments of a work in usually the same medium: Various bodies and objects are evenly tinted with the brush within or along the drawn contours.

    Planes are thus contrasted with lines, enhancing the illusionary effect of plasticity, space, and light and shadow.

    This modelling wash has been used again and again since the 16th century, sometimes in combination with charcoal, chalk, or pencil drawings. A further refinement, used particularly in landscape drawings, is wash in varying intensities; additional shadings in the sense of atmospheric phenomena, such as striking light and haze merging into fog and cloud, can be rendered through thinning of the colour or repeated covering over a particular spot.

    A chromatic element entered drawing with the introduction of diluted indigo , known in the Netherlands from the East India trade; it is not tied to objects but used in spatial and illusionist fashion, by Paul Brill and Hans Bol in the 16th and 17th centuries, for example.

    The mutual supplementation and correlation of pen and brush in the wash technique was developed most broadly and consistently in the 17th century, in which the scaffold, so to speak, of the pen drawing became lighter and more open, and brushwork integrated corporeal and spatial zones.

    The transition from one technique to the other—from wash pen drawings to brush drawings with pen accents—took place without a break. Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin in 16th- and 17th-century France are major representatives of the latter technique, and Rembrandt once again utilized all its possibilities to the full.

    Whereas this method served—within the general stylistic intentions of the 17th century—primarily to elucidate spatial and corporeal proportions, the artists of the 18th century employed it to probe this situation visually with the aid of light.

    The unmarked area, the spot left empty, has as much representational meaning as the pen contours, the lighter or darker brush accent, and the tinted area.

    The art of omission plays a still greater role, if possible, in the later 19th century and in the 20th. As the colouring becomes increasingly varied through the use of watercolours to supplement a pen or metalpoint drawing, one leaves the concept of drawing in the strict sense of the term.

    The combination of dry and fluid drawing mediums provides a genuine surface contrast that may be exploited for sensuous differentiation.

    Here again a distinction must be made between various ways of applying the identical medium—for example, charcoal and charcoal dust in a water solution or, more frequently, sanguine and sanguine rubbed in with a wet brush—and the stronger contrast brought about by the use of altogether different mediums.

    Chalk drawings are frequently washed with bistre or watercolour, after the principle of the washed pen drawing. Stronger contrasts, however, can be obtained if the differing techniques are employed graphically, as the Flemish draftsmen of the 17th century liked to do.

    The Chinese ink wash of chalk drawings also contributes to the illusion of spatial depth. Schongauer came from Alsace, and was born into a family of goldsmiths.

    Albrecht Dürer, a master of the next generation, was also the son of a goldsmith. Old Master Drawings are often reflect the history of the country in which they were produced, and the fundamental characteristics of a nation at that time.

    In 17th-century Holland, a Protestant country, there were almost no religious artworks, and, with no King or court, most art was bought privately.

    Drawings of landscapes or genre scenes were often viewed not as sketches but as highly finished works of art.

    Italian drawings, however, show the influence of Catholicism and the Church, which played a major role in artistic patronage. The same is often true of French drawings, although in the 17th century the disciplines of French Classicism meant drawings were less Baroque than the more free Italian counterparts, which conveyed a greater sense of movement.

    In the 20th century Modernism encouraged "imaginative originality" [20] and some artists' approach to drawing became less literal, more abstract.

    World-renowned artists such as Pablo Picasso, Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat helped challenge the status quo, with drawing being very much at the centre of their practice, and often re-interpreting traditional technique.

    Basquiat's drawings were produced in many different mediums, most commonly ink, pencil, felt-tip or marker, and oil-stick, and he drew on any surface that came to hand, such as doors, clothing, refrigerators, walls and baseball helmets.

    Modern-day artists such as Tracey Emin observe the legacy and importance of drawing, engraving and print making techniques in their vast array, passed down through millennia.

    The centuries have produced a canon of notable artists and draftsmen, each with their own distinct language of drawing, including:.

    The medium is the means by which ink, pigment or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. Most drawing media are either dry e.

    Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencils, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects. Very rarely, artists have drawn with usually decoded invisible ink.

    Metalpoint drawing usually employs either of two metals: Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sold as individual sheets.

    Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper holds the drawing material better. Thus a coarser material is useful for producing deeper contrast.

    Newsprint and typing paper may be useful for practice and rough sketches. Tracing paper is used to experiment over a half-finished drawing, and to transfer a design from one sheet to another.

    Cartridge paper is the basic type of drawing paper sold in pads. Bristol board and even heavier acid-free boards, frequently with smooth finishes, are used for drawing fine detail and do not distort when wet media ink, washes are applied.

    Vellum is extremely smooth and suitable for very fine detail. Coldpressed watercolor paper may be favored for ink drawing due to its texture.

    Acid-free, archival quality paper keeps its color and texture far longer than wood pulp based paper such as newsprint , which turns yellow and becomes brittle much sooner.

    The basic tools are a drawing board or table, pencil sharpener and eraser , and for ink drawing, blotting paper.

    Other tools used are circle compass , ruler , and set square. Fixative is used to prevent pencil and crayon marks from smudging.

    Drafting tape is used to secure paper to drawing surface, and also to mask an area to keep it free of accidental marks, such as sprayed or spattered materials and washes.

    An easel or slanted table is used to keep the drawing surface in a suitable position, which is generally more horizontal than the position used in painting.

    Almost all draftsmen use their hands and fingers to apply the media, with the exception of some handicapped individuals who draw with their mouth or feet.

    Prior to working on an image, the artist typically explores how various media work. They may try different drawing implements on practice sheets to determine value and texture, and how to apply the implement to produce various effects.

    The artist's choice of drawing strokes affects the appearance of the image. Pen and ink drawings often use hatching — groups of parallel lines. Broken hatching, or lines with intermittent breaks, form lighter tones — and controlling the density of the breaks achieves a gradation of tone.

    Stippling uses dots to produce tone, texture and shade. Different textures can be achieved depending on the method used to build tone.

    Drawings in dry media often use similar techniques, though pencils and drawing sticks can achieve continuous variations in tone.

    Typically a drawing is filled in based on which hand the artist favors. A right-handed artist draws from left to right to avoid smearing the image.

    Erasers can remove unwanted lines, lighten tones, and clean up stray marks. In a sketch or outline drawing, lines drawn often follow the contour of the subject, creating depth by looking like shadows cast from a light in the artist's position.

    Sometimes the artist leaves a section of the image untouched while filling in the remainder. The shape of the area to preserve can be painted with masking fluid or cut out of a frisket and applied to the drawing surface, protecting the surface from stray marks until the mask is removed.

    Another method to preserve a section of the image is to apply a spray-on fixative to the surface. This holds loose material more firmly to the sheet and prevents it from smearing.

    However the fixative spray typically uses chemicals that can harm the respiratory system, so it should be employed in a well-ventilated area such as outdoors.

    Another technique is subtractive drawing in which the drawing surface is covered with graphite or charcoal and then erased to make the image.

    Shading is the technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the placement of the shadows.

    Careful attention to reflected light, shadows and highlights can result in a very realistic rendition of the image. Blending uses an implement to soften or spread the original drawing strokes.

    Blending is most easily done with a medium that does not immediately fix itself, such as graphite, chalk, or charcoal, although freshly applied ink can be smudged, wet or dry, for some effects.

    For shading and blending, the artist can use a blending stump , tissue , a kneaded eraser , a fingertip, or any combination of them.

    A piece of chamois is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone.

    Continuous tone can be achieved with graphite on a smooth surface without blending, but the technique is laborious, involving small circular or oval strokes with a somewhat blunt point.

    Shading techniques that also introduce texture to the drawing include hatching and stippling. A number of other methods produce texture.

    In addition to the choice of paper, drawing material and technique affect texture. Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is drawn next to a contrasting texture; a coarse texture is more obvious when placed next to a smoothly blended area.

    A similar effect can be achieved by drawing different tones close together. A light edge next to a dark background stands out to the eye, and almost appears to float above the surface.

    Measuring the dimensions of a subject while blocking in the drawing is an important step in producing a realistic rendition of the subject.

    Tools such as a compass can be used to measure the angles of different sides. These angles can be reproduced on the drawing surface and then rechecked to make sure they are accurate.

    Another form of measurement is to compare the relative sizes of different parts of the subject with each other. A finger placed at a point along the drawing implement can be used to compare that dimension with other parts of the image.

    A ruler can be used both as a straightedge and a device to compute proportions. When attempting to draw a complicated shape such as a human figure, it is helpful at first to represent the form with a set of primitive volumes.

    Almost any form can be represented by some combination of the cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone. Once these basic volumes have been assembled into a likeness, then the drawing can be refined into a more accurate and polished form.

    The lines of the primitive volumes are removed and replaced by the final likeness. Drawing the underlying construction is a fundamental skill for representational art, and is taught in many books and schools.

    Its correct application resolves most uncertainties about smaller details, and makes the final image look consistent. A more refined art of figure drawing relies upon the artist possessing a deep understanding of anatomy and the human proportions.

    A trained artist is familiar with the skeleton structure, joint location, muscle placement, tendon movement, and how the different parts work together during movement.

    This allows the artist to render more natural poses that do not appear artificially stiff. The artist is also familiar with how the proportions vary depending on the age of the subject, particularly when drawing a portrait.

    Linear perspective is a method of portraying objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions shrink with distance.

    Each set of parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, follows lines that eventually converge at a vanishing point.

    Typically this convergence point is somewhere along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface.

    When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures typically converge at a vanishing point.

    When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon which may be off the drawing paper.

    This is a two-point perspective. Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer.

    Thus the back wheel of a cart appears slightly smaller than the front wheel. Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture.

    As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close.

    Because of its slight adhesiveness, charcoal is eminently suited to corrective sketching; but if the drawing is to be preserved, it must be protected by a fixative.

    As a medium for quick, probing sketches and practice in studying models, charcoal was once much used in all academies and workshops.

    The rapid notation of difficult poses, such as Tintoretto demanded of his models, could be done quickly and easily with the adaptable charcoal pencil.

    While some of these sheets were deemed worthy of preservation, hundreds have surely been lost. Charcoal has often been used for portrait drawings to preserve for the eventual painting pictorial tints that were already present in the preliminary sketch.

    When destined to be autonomous portraits, charcoal drawings are executed in detail; with their sharp accents and delicate modelling, such portraits cover the whole range of the medium.

    Popular as that material was for studies and sketches, it has been used for independent drawings destined for preservation by only a few artists; for example, the 17th-century Dutch painter Paulus Potter.

    It is somewhat more frequent among the great draftsmen of the 19th and 20th centuries, such as Edgar Degas , Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Käthe Kollwitz , and Ernst Barlach.

    Oiled charcoal, with the charcoal pencils dipped in linseed oil, provides better adhesion and a deeper black. Used in the 16th century by Tintoretto, this technique was applied above all by the Dutch draftsmen of the 17th century in order to set deep-black accents.

    In addition, charcoal crayons that have been deeply dipped in oil show a brownish streak left by the oil alongside the lines; this technique was used in the 20th century by the American artist Susan Rothenberg.

    The chalks , which resemble charcoal pencils in outward appearance, are an equally important drawing medium.

    If charcoal was primarily a medium for quick sketching that could be corrected and for the search for artistic form, chalk drawing , which can also fulfill all of these functions, has steadily gained in importance as an autonomous vehicle of expression.

    Since the end of the 15th century, stone chalk, as found in nature, has become increasingly more significant in art drawing. As a basic material, alumina chalk has various degrees of hardness, so that the stroke varies from slightly granular to homogeneously dense and smooth.

    The attempt to produce a crayon or pencil of the greatest possible uniformity has led to the production of special chalks for drawing; that is, chalks, which, after being pulverized, washed, and molded into convenient sticks, allow a softer and more regular stroke and are also free of sandy particles.

    The admixture of pigments carbons in the case of black chalks creates various tints from a rich black to a brownish gray; compared to the much-used black chalk, the brown variety is of little significance.

    White chalk, also found in nature, is rarely employed as an independent medium for drawing, although it is frequently used in combination with other mediums in order to achieve reflections of light as individual accents of plastic modelling.

    Beginning with the 15th century, chalk has been used increasingly for studies and sketches. Its suitability for drawing exact lines of any given width and also for laying on finely shaded tints makes it particularly appropriate for modelling studies.

    Accents that stress plastic phenomena are applied by varying the pressure of the hand. Characteristic details in portrait drawings in particular can be brought out in this manner.

    Pictorial values as well as light and shadow effects can be rendered with chalk without losing their firm, plastic form.

    For the same reason, chalk is also most valuable in sketching out paintings and indicating their values. All of these qualities explain why chalk is such a good medium for autonomous drawings.

    Indeed, there is scarcely a draftsman who has not worked in chalk, often in combination with other mediums.

    Aside from portrait drawings done all over the world, landscapes have formed the main theme of chalk drawings, especially with the Dutch, in whose art landscape drawings have played a large role.

    Ever since the invention of artificial chalk made of lampblack a fine, bulky, dull-black soot deposited in incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials , which possesses a precisely measurable consistency—an invention ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci —the pictorial qualities of chalk drawing have been fully utilized.

    Chalks range from those that are dry and charcoal-like to the fatty ones used by lithographers. Another very important drawing pencil is similarly a chalk product: Besides the stronger pictorial effect possible because of its chromatic value, sanguine also possesses a greater suppleness and solubility in water.

    Thus, a homogeneous plane can be created through moist rubbing, a compact stroke through liquid linear application, a very delicate tone through light wiping.

    Although this oxide was used for red tints in prehistoric painting, sanguine does not seem to have acquired artistic dignity until the 15th century, when it became customary to fix drawings by painting them over with a gum solution, for sanguine has no more adhesiveness than charcoal.

    In the 15th century, sanguine was a popular drawing medium because of its wealth of pictorial possibilities. Those inclined to be colorists—such as the portraitists Jean Clouet and Hans Holbein , the Flemish painters around Peter Paul Rubens , and, above all, the French artists of the 18th century—particularly favoured it.

    The possibilities of sanguine range from suggestive forms with markedly plastic values to a very pictorial, soft rendition of visual surface stimuli.

    A combination of various chalks offers still richer coloristic possibilities. Black chalk and sanguine have been widely used since the 16th century to achieve colour differentiation between flesh tones, hair, and the material of garments.

    The combination of black and white chalk serves plastic modelling, as does that of the softer sanguine with white chalk; in the former case, the accentuation rests with the black, in the latter, with the more suggestive delineation in white.

    A decidedly coloristic method lies in the combination of various chalk colours with one another and with tinted paper. Antoine Watteau reached a previously unheard of harmony of different chalks on natural paper.

    An additional colour refinement is made possible with pastel crayons. An ample selection of dry colour pigments in pastel crayons, prepared with a minimum of agglutinants and compounded with different shades of white for the articulation of tints, is commercially available.

    The colours can be laid on in linear technique directly with the crayons, but an area application made with a piece of soft suede or directly, with the fingers, is more frequent.

    Pastel chalks are particularly favoured for portraits; their effect approximates that of colour-and-area painting rather than line drawing.

    In the 19th and 20th centuries, Degas reverted to a stronger accentuation of the delineatory aspects of drawing. With intermediate varnishes he achieved an overlay drawing with different colours and thus an increased emphasis on individual strokes.

    Modern grease chalks offer a chromatic scale of similar range. Developed originally for such technical purposes as the lettering of very smooth surfaces, such as metal or glass, they can be applied in the same flat manner as pastels, although with the opposite aesthetic effect: It was the 20th-century English sculptor Henry Moore who first and convincingly exploited the feasibility of continuing, with other mediums, such as pen or watercolour, work on the firm surface that had been led out with grease chalks.

    Metalpoints have been used for writing and delineation ever since the scriptoria of antiquity. It required little imagination to employ them also in drawing.

    The most frequently used material was soft lead, which on a smooth surface comes out pale gray, not very strong in colour, and easily erasable but very suitable for preliminary sketches.

    Aside from lead, tin and copper were also used, as well as sundry lead-and-pewter alloys. One can see little more than the traces left by the pencil because, as in many other metalpoint drawings, the sketches were redrawn in another medium.

    Metalpoints were used into the 18th century for perspectivist constructions and auxiliary delineation, especially in architectural drawings.

    More suited to permanent drawing is the silverpoint , which requires special preparation of the foundation and, once applied, cannot be corrected.

    Its stroke, also pale gray, oxidizes into brown and adheres unerasably. Silverpoint drawings accordingly require a clearer concept of form and a steady hand because corrections remain visible.

    Because too much pressure can bring about cracks in the foundation, the strokes must be even; emphases, modelling, and light phenomena must be rendered either by means of dense hachures, repetitions, and blanks or else supplemented by other mediums.

    Despite these difficulties, silverpoint was much used in the 15th and 16th centuries. Silverpoint was much in demand for portrait drawings from the 15th into the 17th century; revived in the 18th-century Romantic era, it was also used by modern artists, most notably Picasso.

    Toward the end of the 16th century, a new drawing medium was introduced and soon completely displaced metalpoint in sketching and preliminary drawing: Also called Spanish lead after its chief place of origin, this drawing medium was quickly and widely adopted; but because of its soft and smeary consistency it was used for autonomous drawings only by some Dutch painters, and even they employed it mostly in conjunction with other points.

    It might be added that the graphite point was originally taken for a metal because its texture shines metallically in slanting light. Purified and washed, graphite could henceforth be made with varying admixtures of clay and in any desired degree of hardness.

    The hard points, with their durable, clear, and thin stroke layers, were especially suited to the purposes of Neoclassicist and Romantic draftsmen.

    The Germans working in Rome, in particular, took advantage of the chance to sketch rapidly and to reproduce, in one and the same medium, subtle differentiations as well as clear proportions of plasticity and light.

    Among the most masterful pencil artists of all was Ingres , who presketched systematically in pencil the well-thought-out structure of his paintings.

    The more pictorially inclined artists of the late 19th century preferred softer pencils in order to throw into plastic relief certain areas within the drawing.

    Coloured crayons , in circulation since the late 19th century, offer all the possibilities of black graphite points; and, in combinations, they attain a stronger colour value than chalks because they do not merge with one another.

    Every line preserves its original and characteristic colour, a form of independence that Gustav Klimt and Picasso exploited to the full.

    A role apart is that played by incised drawings. Their pronounced linearity gives them the visual appearance of other drawings; materially, however, they represent the opposite principle, that of subtracting from a surface rather than adding to it.

    Incised drawings are among the oldest documents of human activity. In primitive African cultures , the methods and forms of prehistoric bone and rock drawings have survived into the present.

    In a decorative and conceivably also symbolic form, incised decorations on pottery have existed for thousands of years; insofar as the comparison is valid, they correspond in every formal respect to applied drawings of the same period.

    A formal equivalent may also be observed in later times: More often than not these are drawings that follow certain models rather than free drawings in the sense of sketches.

    Logically, one would also have to consider all niello work under the heading of drawing, because the picture in this case is cut out of the metal and filled with a deep black-coloured paste so that it appears to the eye as a linear projection on a plane.

    In like manner, work with the graver or burin cutting tools and with the etching needle on the engraving plate may be considered to parallel in its execution that gradual effort applied directly to the carrier that was defined earlier as the art of drawing.

    The difference lies in the fact that this work is not a goal in itself but the prerequisite for a printing process that is intended to be repetitive.

    Of the many possibilities of transferring liquid dyestuffs onto a plane, two have become particularly significant for art drawing: To be sure, finger painting, as found in prehistoric cave paintings, has occasionally been practiced since the late Renaissance and increasingly so in more recent times.

    For drawing as such, however, the method is irrelevant. Although it is antedated by the brush, which in some cultures East Asia, for example has remained in continued use, the pen has been the favorite writing and drawing tool ever since classical antiquity.

    The principle of transferring dyestuffs with the pen has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. The capillary effect of the split tip, cut at a slant, applies the drawing fluid to the surface parchment, papyrus, and, since the late Middle Ages, almost exclusively paper in amounts varying with the saturation of the pen and the pressure exerted by the drawing hand.

    The oldest form is that of the reed pen ; cut from papyrus plants, sedge, or bamboo, it stores a reservoir of fluid in its hollow interior.

    Rembrandt made superb use of the strong, plastic accents of the reed pen, supplementing it as a rule with other pens or brushes.

    Beginning in the 19th century with the Dutch artist van Gogh , pure reed-pen drawings with a certain forcefulness of expression have been created by many artists.

    Expressionists such as George Grosz used the reed pen frequently. If the selection of the reed pen already implies a formal statement of sorts, that of the quill pen opens up a far wider range of possibilities.

    Ever since the rise of drawing in Western art—that is, since the late Middle Ages—the quill has been the most frequently used instrument for applying liquid mediums to the drawing surface.

    The supple tip of the quill, available in varying strengths, permits a relatively wide scale of individual strokes—from soft, thin lines, such as those used in preliminary sketches for illustrations in illuminated books, through waxing and waning lines that allow differentiation within the stroke, to energetic, broad lines.

    Although all dyestuffs of low viscosity lend themselves to pen drawing , the various inks are most often employed. The manufacture of gallnut ink had been known from the medieval scriptoria copying rooms set apart for scribes in monasteries.

    An extract of gallnuts mixed with iron vitriol and thickened with gum-arabic solution produces a writing fluid that comes from the pen black, with a strong hint of purple violet, and dries almost black.

    In the course of time it turns a darkish brown, so that the writing fluid in old manuscripts and drawings cannot always be identified by the colour alone.

    In contrast to other brown writing fluids, the more strongly coloured parts of gallnut ink remain markedly darker; and because inks of especially great vitriol content decompose the paper, the drawing, particularly in its more coloured portions, tends to shine through on the reverse side of the sheet.

    Only industrially produced chemical inks possess the necessary ion balance to forestall this undesirable effect. Another ink, one that seems to have found no favour as a writing fluid but has nonetheless had a certain popularity in drawing, is bistre , an easily dissolved, light-to-dark-brown transparent pigment obtained from the soot of the lampblack that coats wood-burning chimneys.

    Its shade depends both on the concentration and on the kind of wood from which it is derived, hardwoods especially oaks producing a darker shade than conifers, such as pine.

    During the pictorially oriented Baroque period , in the 17th and early 18th centuries, the warm tone that can be thinned at will made bistre a popular medium with which to supplement the planes of a pen drawing.

    Also derived from a carbon base is India ink , made from the soot of exceptionally hard woods, such as olive or grape vines, or from the fatty lampblack of the oil flame, with gum-arabic mixed in as a binding agent.

    This deep-black, thick fluid preserves its dark tone for a long time and can be thinned with water until it becomes a light gray.

    Pressed into sticks or bars, it was sold under the name of Chinese ink or India ink. This writing fluid, known already in Egypt and used to this day in China and India , has been manufactured in Europe since the 15th century.

    Favoured in particular by German and Dutch draftsmen because of its strong colour, it lent itself above all to drawing on tinted paper.

    Since the 19th century, India ink has been the most popular drawing ink for pen drawings, replacing all other dyestuffs in technical sketches.

    Only very recently have writing inks gained some significance in art drawing—in connection with the practical fountain pen. For a relatively short time, a dyestuff of animal origin, sepia , obtained from the pigment of the cuttlefish , was used for drawing.

    Known since Roman times, it did not come into general use until the 18th century. Compared to yellowish bistre, it has a cooler and darker tone, and is brown with a trace of violet.

    Until the 18th century, it was employed by such amateur painters as the poet Goethe because of its effectiveness in depth; as a primary pigment, however, it has been completely replaced by industrially manufactured watercolours.

    Other dyestuffs are of only minor importance compared with these inks, which are primarily used for pen drawings.

    Minium red lead was used in the medieval scriptoria for the decoration of initial letters and also in illustrated pen drawings. Chinese white is easier to apply with a pointed brush because of its thickness; other pigments, among them indigo and green copper sulfate, are rarely found in drawings.

    For them, too, the brush is a better tool than the pen. The systematically produced watercolours of various shades are almost wholly restricted to technical drawings.

    In combination with written texts, pen drawings are among the oldest artistic documents. Already in classical times, texts were illustrated with firm contours and sparse interior details.

    During the Middle Ages, marginal drawings and book illustrations were time and again pre-sketched, if not definitively executed, with the pen.

    In book painting, decidedly delineatory styles developed in which the brush was also employed in the manner of a pen drawing: The thin-lined outline sketch is also characteristic of the earliest individual drawings of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance.

    Sketches after ancient sculptures or after nature as well as compositions dealing with familiar motifs form the main themes of these drawings.

    Such sheets were primarily used as models for paintings; gathered in sketchbooks, they were often handed on from one generation to the next.

    The practical usefulness of these drawings is attested by the supplements added to them by younger artists and by the fact that many metalpoint drawings that had become hard to decipher were redrawn with the pen, as shown by the sketchbooks of the 15th-century Italian artist Antonio Pisanello , now broken up and preserved in several different collections.

    In the 16th century, the artistic range of the pen drawing reached an individual articulation that it hardly ever attained again. Every artist was free to exploit with the pen the formal possibilities that corresponded to his talents.

    Thus Leonardo used a precise stroke for his scientific drawings; Raphael produced relaxed sketches, in which he probed for forms and variations of form; Michelangelo drew with short strokes reminiscent of chisel work; Titian contrasted light and dark by means of hachures laid broadly over the completed figures.

    Among the Northerners, Dürer mastered all the possibilities of pen drawing, from quick notation to the painstakingly executed autonomous drawing, ranging from a purely graphic and delineatory technique to a spatial and plastic modelling one; it is no wonder that he stimulated so many other artists.

    A special form of exact drawing is found in models for engravings; some of these were directly mounted on the wood block; some anticipate the style of the copperplate engraving in the pen-drawing stage, with waxing and waning lines, delicate stroke layers, and cross-hatching for spatial and plastic effects.

    In the 17th century, the pen drawing took second place to combined techniques, especially wash , a sweep or splash of colour, applied with the brush.

    An open style of drawing that merely hints at contours, along with contrasting thin and powerful strokes, endowed the line itself with expressive qualities.

    In his numerous drawings, Rembrandt in particular achieved an exceedingly subtle plastic characterization and even light values through the differentiation of stroke layers and the combination of various pens and brushes.

    Additional techniques came to the fore in the 18th century, with the pen sketch providing the scaffold for the drawing that was carried out in a pictorial style.

    Only decorative sketches and practical studies were laid out more often as linear drawings. The closed, thin-contour drawing regained its importance with Neoclassicism at the end of the 18th century.

    Luke, who lived in monastic style and Romantics consciously referred to the early Renaissance manner of drawing, modelling with thin lines.

    With closed contours, carefully set hair-and-shadow strokes, and precise parallel hachures, they attained plastic values by purely graphic means.

    The pure pen drawing took its place by the side of other highly esteemed art forms. The English Art Nouveau artist Aubrey Beardsley at the end of the 19th century applied the direct black—white contrast to planes, while in the 20th century the French masters Henri Matisse and Picasso reduced the object to a mere line that makes no claim to corporeal illusion.

    A large number of illustrators, as well as the artists who draw the comic strips, prefer the clear pen stroke. In the hair-thin automatist seismograms so-called because of their resemblance to the records of earthquakes of the 20th-century German artist Wols Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze , which are sensitive to the slightest stirring of the hand, this theme leads to a new dimension transcending all traditional concepts of a representational art of drawing.

    Although the brush is best suited to the flat application of pigments—in other words, to painting—its use in a clearly delineatory function, with the line dominating and a crucial property of brush drawing in monochrome fashion, can be traced back to prehistoric times.

    All of the above-mentioned drawing inks have been used as dyes in brush drawings, often with one and the same pigment employed in combined pen-and-brush work.

    Still greater differentiation in tone is often obtained through concentrated or thinned mediums and with the addition of supplementary ones.

    To the latter belong chiefly distemper, a paint in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of egg or size or both, and watercolours, which can be used along with bistre and drawing ink.

    Even oils can sometimes be used for individual effects in drawing, as in the works of Jacob Jordaens.

    Sinopia , the preliminary sketch for a monumental wall painting , was done with the brush and has all the characteristics of a preparatory, form-probing drawing.

    It is one of the simplest and most efficient means of communicating visual ideas. In addition to its more artistic forms, drawing is frequently used in commercial illustration , animation , architecture , engineering and technical drawing.

    A quick, freehand drawing, usually not intended as a finished work, is sometimes called a sketch. An artist who practices or works in technical drawing may be called a drafter , draftsman or a draughtsman.

    Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression within the visual arts. In Western terminology, drawing is distinct from painting, even though similar media often are employed in both tasks.

    Dry media, normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel paintings. Drawing may be done with a liquid medium, applied with brushes or pens.

    Similar supports likewise can serve both: Drawing is often exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem-solving and composition.

    Drawing is also regularly used in preparation for a painting, further obfuscating their distinction. Drawings created for these purposes are called studies.

    There are several categories of drawing, including figure drawing , cartooning , doodling , and freehand. There are also many drawing methods, such as line drawing, stippling, shading , the surrealist method of entopic graphomania in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots , and tracing drawing on a translucent paper, such as tracing paper , around the outline of preexisting shapes that show through the paper.

    A quick, unrefined drawing may be called a sketch. In fields outside art, technical drawings or plans of buildings, machinery, circuitry and other things are often called "drawings" even when they have been transferred to another medium by printing.

    Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression, with evidence for its existence preceding that of written communication.

    Before the widespread availability of paper, 12th-century monks in European monasteries used intricate drawings to prepare illustrated, illuminated manuscripts on vellum and parchment.

    Drawing has also been used extensively in the field of science, as a method of discovery, understanding and explanation.

    In , astronomer Galileo Galilei explained the changing phases of the moon through his observational telescopic drawings. Drawing is used to express one's creativity, and therefore has been prominent in the world of art.

    Throughout much of history, drawing was regarded as the foundation for artistic practice. At this point, drawing was commonly used as a tool for thought and investigation, acting as a study medium whilst artists were preparing for their final pieces of work.

    The invention of the first widely available form of photography led to a shift in the hierarchy of the arts. Drawing became significant as an art form around the late 15th century, with artists and master engravers such as Albrecht Dürer and Martin Schongauer c.

    Schongauer came from Alsace, and was born into a family of goldsmiths. Albrecht Dürer, a master of the next generation, was also the son of a goldsmith.

    Old Master Drawings are often reflect the history of the country in which they were produced, and the fundamental characteristics of a nation at that time.

    In 17th-century Holland, a Protestant country, there were almost no religious artworks, and, with no King or court, most art was bought privately.

    Drawings of landscapes or genre scenes were often viewed not as sketches but as highly finished works of art. Italian drawings, however, show the influence of Catholicism and the Church, which played a major role in artistic patronage.

    The same is often true of French drawings, although in the 17th century the disciplines of French Classicism meant drawings were less Baroque than the more free Italian counterparts, which conveyed a greater sense of movement.

    In the 20th century Modernism encouraged "imaginative originality" [20] and some artists' approach to drawing became less literal, more abstract.

    World-renowned artists such as Pablo Picasso, Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat helped challenge the status quo, with drawing being very much at the centre of their practice, and often re-interpreting traditional technique.

    Basquiat's drawings were produced in many different mediums, most commonly ink, pencil, felt-tip or marker, and oil-stick, and he drew on any surface that came to hand, such as doors, clothing, refrigerators, walls and baseball helmets.

    Modern-day artists such as Tracey Emin observe the legacy and importance of drawing, engraving and print making techniques in their vast array, passed down through millennia.

    The centuries have produced a canon of notable artists and draftsmen, each with their own distinct language of drawing, including:.

    The medium is the means by which ink, pigment or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. Most drawing media are either dry e.

    Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencils, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects. Very rarely, artists have drawn with usually decoded invisible ink.

    Metalpoint drawing usually employs either of two metals: Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sold as individual sheets.

    Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper holds the drawing material better. Thus a coarser material is useful for producing deeper contrast.

    Newsprint and typing paper may be useful for practice and rough sketches. Tracing paper is used to experiment over a half-finished drawing, and to transfer a design from one sheet to another.

    Cartridge paper is the basic type of drawing paper sold in pads. Bristol board and even heavier acid-free boards, frequently with smooth finishes, are used for drawing fine detail and do not distort when wet media ink, washes are applied.

    Vellum is extremely smooth and suitable for very fine detail. Coldpressed watercolor paper may be favored for ink drawing due to its texture.

    Acid-free, archival quality paper keeps its color and texture far longer than wood pulp based paper such as newsprint , which turns yellow and becomes brittle much sooner.

    The basic tools are a drawing board or table, pencil sharpener and eraser , and for ink drawing, blotting paper. Other tools used are circle compass , ruler , and set square.

    Fixative is used to prevent pencil and crayon marks from smudging. Drafting tape is used to secure paper to drawing surface, and also to mask an area to keep it free of accidental marks, such as sprayed or spattered materials and washes.

    An easel or slanted table is used to keep the drawing surface in a suitable position, which is generally more horizontal than the position used in painting.

    Almost all draftsmen use their hands and fingers to apply the media, with the exception of some handicapped individuals who draw with their mouth or feet.

    Prior to working on an image, the artist typically explores how various media work. They may try different drawing implements on practice sheets to determine value and texture, and how to apply the implement to produce various effects.

    The artist's choice of drawing strokes affects the appearance of the image. May she draw a husband, while drawing her water, as Rachel did of old.

    I had no means of preserving a specimen, but I took a drawing of one. The "picture-making" sense is from s; of the picture itself from s.

    Drawing board is from ; used in figurative expression from midc. Sense of "make a line or figure" by "drawing" a pencil across paper is c.

    Meaning "pull out a weapon" is c. To draw a criminal drag him from a horse to place of execution is from early 14c. To draw a blank "come up with nothing" is an image from lotteries.

    As a noun, from s; colloquial sense of "anything that can draw a crowd" is from the verb in this sense is s.

    Draw-game is from As a verb, "to leave undecided," from In addition to the idioms beginning with draw. Synonyms Examples Word Origin.

    Middle English word dating back to —; see origin at draw , -ing 1. The concert drew a large audience. Draw up the contract.

    The deposits draw interest. Let's draw straws to see who has to wash the car. She draws six feet.

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